Except sewage, many other pollution getting to waterways also can influence quality of water sources: the erosion products, chlorides applied against frosting of roads, the salts which are washed away from river courses or leached from soils at an irrigation storm waters from the polluted territories, etc.
With development of cattle breeding impact of the person on the nature amplified. The inevitable big congestion of cattle on pastures was followed by change of vegetation and replacement of wild herbivores from their radical habitats.
Most strongly pollute a surface water pulp-and-paper factories, the chemical companies, oil refineries, cotton-mills, mountain installations, the metallurgical enterprises, etc., and also agriculture. The main pollutants are oil, phenols, pesticides, difficult chemical compounds, non-ferrous metals, etc. now.
Three quarters of a surface of our planet are covered with water. The total amount of water stocks of Earth - 1,4 billion km From this volume of 94,2% - salty sea water. The ice lying round poles and in mountains makes another 1,65%.
Mass destruction of the woods caused profound changes in a hydrology of sushi and the water mode of soils. Thereof processes of an erosion of soils amplified, there were destructive floods, the rivers shoaled and there was a problem of shortage of fresh water, the drying-up action of climate amplified in many regions.
Pollution of the sea has pernicious effect on tourism and rest, on fishery, complicates desalting of sea water when it needs to be turned into the drinking. Pollution of the sea - a universal problem. As well as in fresh waters, fish can be the indicator of pollution.
Basic changes of landscapes and intensive trade were negatively reflected in resources of animals. One of them completely disappeared from the face of the earth, others became rare and appeared on the verge of extinction, stocks of the third underwent strong reduction.
The present stage of interaction of society and the nature is characterized by intensive intervention of the person in natural processes. Relationship of society with the nature for historically short period became one of the major global problems facing mankind.
In use of natural resources the mankind always had to reckon with limitation of their stocks. At the same time the history convincingly shows that applicable to all three large categories of resources - to the food, materials and energy - the contradiction between requirements of society and opportunities of their satisfaction was solved in favor of the person so far.
Pollution of surface and underground water causes corrosion of the concrete and ferroconcrete designs which are in water, and also education on them various deposits. It eventually complicates and raises the price of operation of constructions.
Especially large changes in the nature are made by the person to a capitalism era with its industrial equipment and a private property on means of production. Development of the industry demanded involvement in economic circulation of new most various natural resources. Besides expansion of scales of use of lands, the woods, fauna, intensive operation of a fossil subsoil, water resources, etc. began. Spontaneous operation of the nature, injurious and escalating on the rates and scales, led to its fast exhaustion.
Harmful consequences of unsatisfactory quality of water are observed and at an irrigation of agricultural grounds: there is a salinization of the soil, leaching of salts from it, braking of biochemical processes in the soil and in cages of plants, acidity increase, drift of fields grubodispersny and colloidal substances.
The nature - the main source of the material benefits necessary for life of society. The variety of interrelations of society and the nature is especially distinctly shown in the sphere of the relations of production reflecting specifics of various social and economic formations.